Latest News

Actix, a specialist in Network Status Management (NSM) and Network Performance Engineering (NPE) solutions, will announce a range of new products during Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, all with a focus on cost reduction for the mobile network operator.

With over 100 man-years of research and development effort invested in a host of new capabilities designed to meet the needs of cost-conscious, next generation mobile networks, Actix is launching major updates to the new Actix NSM 2.0 system for enterprise grade network status management and Actix AXP 5.0 for automatic network planning.

Following the successful launch of Actix NSM at Mobile World Congress in 2008, and strong uptake from more than 20 Tier 1 operators globally, 2009 will see Actix extending its lead in this new category with the second major release of the NSM suite. Actix NSM 2.0, which is based on the Actix One framework, will include a range of new modules that systemize and automate enterprise level network benchmarking, optimization and issue resolution.

"It's been a year of amazing growth for the NSM category," said Neil Coleman, NSM Product Manager. "We've seen extraordinary demand for these systems, which focus precisely on the cost and margin issues facing network operators in mature markets, with installations going into service with several of the world's top 10 operators. Actix is really changing the way this area of the mobile network is managed, helping operators shift working practices onto a much more scientific level."

Actix AXP 5.0
Consisting of a major update and bringing both Radioplan and Cellopt functionality within the same platform, Actix AXP 5.0 includes AFP, ACP, ANP, and ARP capabilities. Actix will be demonstrating the first fully integrated automatic optimization solution that supports the entire process of optimization in one unified software application.

The existing Cellopt AFP functions will be enhanced by a full map-based GUI, QoS simulator, faster execution and stronger switch interfacing capabilities inherited from the AXP platform. The integrated Radioplan applications include strong new features based on unique research for LTE and MIMO, allowing more accurate rollout of 3G and 4G infrastructure, as well as enhancements to allow geo-location of mobile measurement and call trace reports. 

"This is really a huge upgrade to our existing capability, a commitment which will be hard to match, representing close to two years of R&D effort," said Joerg Schueler, Director of AO Products. "This release takes Actix AXP far beyond existing solutions, offering a streamlined workflow and a host of new capabilities for CAPEX and OPEX cost reduction both for existing networks and for new 4G deployments." 

Cellebrite, a provider of carrier-grade mobile phone synchronization systems, is launching CelleSync, its new integrated over-the-air (OTA) and point-of-sale (POS) platform, at Mobile World Congress.  The new solution is claimed to be the first complete solution that allows mobile phone operators and retailers to offer both OTA and POS back-up of phone and SIM content including: phonebook, text messages, calendar, images, videos and music.

The OTA component is fully integrated with Cellebrite's POS device, UME-36Pro, which serves users worldwide  with immediate back-up of their mobile content when upgrading phones or changing network providers.  By integrating the UME at point-of-sale with CelleSync, carriers can increase revenue by tapping into the current POS activity to activate OTA customers. Thus, sales representatives can overcome the typical resistance to OTA back-up adoption that has kept the subscription rate low until today. Cellebrite provides a smooth installation of the OTA client software on the phone at the retail outlet, enabling automatic updates of new personal data to be backed-up without any user intervention necessary, thereby achieving a much higher rate of adoption than other OTA solutions.  By using CelleSync, customers can restore data in seconds, in the event of loss or theft of a mobile device, without re-entering any data. In addition, customers can also access and share personal data via a web portal, including posting data to content sharing and social networking websites such as Facebook, You Tube and Flickr as well as synchronizing Microsoft Outlook contacts.

For mobile operators, CelleSync provides the chance of additional revenue streams by offering a chargeable monthly service or an add-on service to existing mobile device insurance plans, as well as the promise of increased data usage. It also offers the potential to improve customer retention by providing an easy upgrade path to new handsets with no concern or hassle of data transfer.  Global customers of CelleSync's existing UME-36 Pro in carriers and retailers worldwide can now upgrade to the OTA service.  

According to Yossi Carmil and Ron Serber, Co-Ceos of Cellebrite: "In today's society, where mobile phone users see their personal data as a lifeline - and as the variety and volume of mobile data increases, the need for intelligent data management becomes a must for mobile operators and retailers. With Cellebrite, operators can keep customers satisfied with this service while simultaneously increasing revenues." 

Interxion, a European operator of carrier-neutral data centres, and Espanix, the Internet exchange in Southern Europe, today announced a partnership agreement that will extend the Espanix exchange infrastructure into Interxion's Madrid data centre. The agreement will allow Interxion's Madrid customers to reduce latency and transit costs by peering directly with Espanix, while Espanix members will be able to expand their applications infrastructure in the security of Interxion's 4,000m2 facility. The new Espanix infrastructure will go live at the beginning of March, and a number of Interxion customers have already signed up.

"For us, connecting to Espanix makes perfect sense, said Rubèn Bouso, Technical Director of Dinahosting, one of Spain's fastest growing hosting companies, and one of the first Interxion customers to connect to Espanix. "We have a constant need to improve the quality of user experience for our customers, and the lower latency we get from peering at Espanix, in combination with the cost reduction in our IP traffic, makes very good business sense."

Espanix ranks among Europe's largest internet exchange points measured by traffic volume, handling more than 125 Gigabits per second. It is the 15th European Internet exchange to locate in one of Interxion's 24 European data centres, and its members now join Interxion's pan-European community of over 500 connected carriers and ISPs.

"By enabling our customers to exchange IP traffic with Espanix's members and vice versa, both groups will benefit, and our position as one of Spain's leading connectivity hubs will be strengthened," said Robert Assink, Interxion Spain Managing Director. "At Interxion, Espanix members can build out secure, serviced network and content delivery infrastructure as and when demand requires, and Interxion customers can gain improvements in quality and cost-effectiveness by peering directly at Espanix."

The Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) has today announced that it has formed an agreement with Aeneas Strategy Consulting and Management to participate in, guide and support their mobile advertising research project; conducted in collaboration with MSearchGroove and EverySingleOneOfUs. The agreement is said to lay the foundation for an ongoing research partnership between the two organisations which will begin with a study of mobile advertising in the UK and plans to extend from there to other national mobile advertising markets in Europe.

Combining quantitative and qualitative research methodologies and encompassing the full mobile advertising value chain from advertisers and agencies through end consumers, the research project is well aligned with the MMA's goal of promoting industry understanding and market development.

"The results of this study will significantly add to MMA members' stock of knowledge about the trends, size, scope and current effectiveness of mobile advertising in the UK," said Paul Berney, MMA Managing Director for Europe.

After extensive primary research into mobile advertising industry agencies, networks and consumers, the findings will be published in a Mobile Advertising UK Report and discussed at an Aeneas sponsored event in June. An important aspect of this research partnership will be its investigation into advertisers' and agencies' perceptions and activity around mobile advertising.

"We are very pleased to be working with the MMA, and to have its support for the Mobile Advertising UK study. This collaboration will be another important step in the education of the industry to help companies engage in the mobile medium, drive mobile advertising revenues and ensure brands are going where the consumers are," said Tarik Fawzi, Director of Aeneas Strategy.

"The education of brands and advertisers on the opportunities and challenges within the mobile channel and insights into how advertisers view consumer engagement via mobile advertising is a key step towards enhancing brand participation in this rapidly growing industry," continued Berney. "The MMA has long supported research into mobile marketing and advertising, and sees the partnership with Aeneas Strategy as being of great strategic importance for continued industry development."

Telmap, a specialist in mobile location solutions, today announced that it is delivering an 'advanced' navigation and location based service for Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs) based on the Intel Atom processor and Linux-based Moblin platform.

The Intel Atom processor is said to deliver high performance at dramatically lower power while delivering a compelling Internet experience for MIDs. MIDs are expected to support always-on connectivity, high-resolution displays and touch-screen interfaces, which make them ideally suited for advanced search, mapping and navigation solutions.

"As the need for mobility and always-on internet connectivity take a firmer grip on our society, the extension of our business to support the MID category was clearly a natural step for Telmap", says Oren Nissim, CEO of Telmap. "We see MIDs as another great platform that will drive a more connected and location-aware society. The high performance of the Intel Atom processor will support our technology requirements, and in turn will provide an advanced user experience in mobile navigation and location technologies."

"Mobile Internet Devices are ideally suited to deliver real-time Internet-based navigation and location based services on the go," said Pankaj Kedia, director of global ecosystem programs in the Ultra Mobility Group at Intel Corporation. "The high performance and visual capabilities of MIDs enabled by the Intel Atom processor, combined with Telmap's expertise in navigation and location services, will make it easier to bring these experiences to people."

Telmap will unveil and demonstrate Mobile Internet Devices running its Telmap Navigator application at Mobile World Congress.

Adax and Kontron have announced they will be providing a demonstration of their ATCA solutions at the Kontron booth during Mobile World Congress. The demonstration will show how mobile operators can benefit from the power and flexibility of the ATCA platform integrated with AMC components in an I/O subsystem for systems architects.

The high performance of the Adax Signaling Gateway on a Processor AMC (AM4010) card in the Kontron OM5080 system against server platforms with more powerful processors demonstrates that the ATCA/µTCA form factor can cope with heavy throughput demands of carrier-grade systems signaling nodes such as a Signaling Gateway.

"Meeting the demands for faster time-to-market and leading-edge technology has become a necessity and we are delighted to be demonstrating how mobile operators can benefit from our joint solution at this year's Mobile World Congress," explains Robin Kent, director of operations at Adax Europe.  "Adax and Kontron have worked closely to create a cost effective platform comprising of a flexible architecture with comprehensive configuration options." 

The Adax and Kontron I/O subsystem uses off-the-shelf ATCA standards-based components for computing, signaling, packet processing and dataplane applications to provide mobile operators with the most advanced, easy to integrate I/O resource for their applications.

The Adax Signaling Gateway (AdaxGW) on display is field ready and includes Adax ATM4 for ATM-IP interworking and Kontron AM4204 Cavium-based IPsec for bearer channel applications, such as Access Gateways for the emerging femtocell market. Mobile operators can configure and scale components and chassis levels in line with their specific application requirements.

NEC has announced today the conclusion of a full-turnkey supply contract with one of Croatia's leading fixed telecom operators, Optima Telekom, to deliver, install and provide after-sales services for approximately 40 PASOLINK NEO hops (80 systems).

After for 4 years of utilizing NEC telecom systems, such as PASOLINK, Optima choose NEC's PASOLINK NEO in order to enhance its network of voice and data services for suburban areas of Croatia, and expand the coverage of voice, Internet and IPTV services. Optima's IP based telecommunications network covers more than 100 Croatian cities, which makes Optima Telekom the second largest domestic operator, following the former national telecommunications company. More than 2,000 km of optical infrastructure, including NEC's PASOLINK, support a market potential that covers more than 1/3 of Croatian population.

According to NEC, PASOLINK NEO's competitive advantages over other wireless access systems include its ability to handle different transmission speeds and interfaces with the same platform. This flexibility allows easier and more cost efficient expansion of networks when operators need to increase capacity. Furthermore, NEC's ability to carry out full development, from purchasing of raw materials to mass production, is claimed to ensure a highly reliable system of superior quality, which achieves an average failure rate of less than once every hundred years.

Mycom, a global provider of OSS Service Assurance software solutions and professional services to the telecoms industry, today announced the latest release of NIMS-PrOptima, following the successful live deployment, intensive usage and benchmarking with a leading European Tier 1 network operator.

Improved functionality and performance of the software have been a result of Mycom's largest and most ambitious software development project to date. The new version of the software goes one step further in the race for performance excellence with its Next Generation event based mediation layer. The constant introduction of new telecom technologies and services combined with the ongoing evolution of telecom standards has significantly increased the number of data sources, domains and devices that need to be managed by the operator's Service Assurance solutions.

Mycom's solution allows operators to get real time access to end-to-end network and service performance.  This together with new state-of-the-art intelligent analysis modules and enhancements to existing modules enables operational teams to maintain high levels of service quality expected by customers today.

Mounir Ladki, General Manager, Product Business Unit, is delighted with the ongoing evolution and advancement of NIMS-PrOptima.  "This release is the fruit of a proactive collaboration with our customers and partners that enabled us to anticipate and deliver key capabilities required by Communication Service Providers (CSPs) as they transform their business and roll out Next Generation technologies and services. NIMS-PrOptima dramatically improves the productivity and the reactivity of CSPs organization thanks to its superior feature set. It also considerably simplifies the OSS by providing a unique central platform across the various network technologies and domains. This enables CSPs to achieve significant CAPEX and OPEX savings while offering high quality of service and optimizing their investment in network resources."

IP Integration has signed a deal to become a business partner of Veropath, the UK specialist in telecoms expenses management. Under the terms of the deal, IP Integration will offer the Veropath service alongside its existing partnerships to provide complete business communications solutions to its growing customer base.

"The Veropath service helps us save money for our customers, and complements our skills in deriving the maximum benefit from technology," commented Steve Walker, Managing Director of IP Integration. "Many organisations are currently looking to seek out efficiencies and increase flexibility. Veropath helps us do this with our existing customers, and also increases our opportunities in attracting new customers."

The cost savings generated by the Veropath service can free up ICT budgets and help customers plan for future trends. Gartner research estimates that 80% of telecoms bills contain errors and up to 35% of all fixed telecoms assets are surplus to requirement.

David Pitts commented: "I'm delighted to bring IP Integration into the Veropath network. Veropath provides a value-add service for their portfolio that can help them develop much closer relationships with customers."

Veropath brings billing information for landlines, mobiles and data services from all major suppliers into a single platform for customers. All telecoms suppliers offer billing information in different electronic (and paper) formats making it difficult for customers to reconcile the information. Veropath enables customers to view billing data and interrogate the information to verify if it is correct, to allocate it to cost centres accurately and to make informed decisions.

The active management of telecoms expenses enables companies to save up to 50% on telecoms expenditure and allows them to make informed decisions about suppliers, tariffs and equipment (source: IntelligentComms customer case studies). Most organisations over-pay for their telecoms services by being on incorrect tariffs from their suppliers, paying for services no longer being used and from incorrect billing.

telent has been selected by Serco Docklands, the franchise operator of the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), as its system integration partner on a new network upgrade project.  telent will install a new high performance LAN infrastructure to underpin the railway's planned deployment of new services and IP-based applications, the first of which uses ASL iPA equipment to provide an innovative IP-based public address (PA) system servicing some 32 DLR stations. 

telent has been chosen to undertake the system design and implementation of both the network and PA system, capitalising on its extensive rail, IT and acoustic consultancy expertise.  The roll out of the project has already started and will be completed during 2009. 

Michael Evans, Serco Docklands' Communications Engineer, says, "Clearly the trend is to shift from a conventional multiplexed communications medium to a converged IP network and the goal of the project is to put in place an infrastructure which will last for the next 10 years.  telent was chosen given their excellent response to our tender, and a competitively priced solution which can scale and change to meet our needs, all backed up by support staff who are close by."

telent's LAN design uses gigabit Ethernet Cisco Systems switches throughout the network, with stackable gigabit Ethernet switches at the edge to provide for future growth.  Dual linked for resilience, the LAN will interoperate with existing TDM-based network infrastructure and is easily upgradeable as more bandwidth is required over time. 

telent is working closely on the project with PA supplier, Application Solutions Limited (ASL), to deploy its new high quality, fully featured IP-based distributed PA system called iPAM.  telent already has a good relationship with ASL, developed during the implementation of their PA system on 76 London Underground stations, as part of the Whole Life Cost Contract that telent is currently delivering to Tube Lines.  Such is the nature of the relationship that telent engineers have even contributed some ideas in the design of iPAM.  It is a monitored PA solution specifically designed for the harsh environments found at railway stations and performs equally well over legacy and new data networks.  In fact, as a part of this project, iPAM technology is being installed on some DLR stations prior to the Cisco roll out.  Serco Docklands will be the first company in the UK to deploy such a system.

The public address system will be controlled from Linux PC workstations at the Control Centre, and telent is also integrating it with the DLR customer information display system.  This integration will guarantee consistency when providing passengers with audio/visual updates about train arrivals and departures.

Sousan Azimrayat, ASL's founder and director, explains, "iPAM has been designed to integrate easily with all operational and maintenance control systems and allows full monitoring of the PA system and of other station equipment, with faults flagged directly on screen so that prompt action can be taken."

In terms of network architecture, each main service on the network will have its own virtual private network (VPN) and as part of the overall solution, telent will also install a firewall and a new network management system.

telent will also provide maintenance support from its Pudding Mill Lane depot, with monitoring and management of the network from its 24/7/365 Service Centre based near Canary Wharf.

Evans says, "Over time, other key systems will be bought across to run over the new network, such as passenger information displays on station concourses, and a train management computer system.  Serco Docklands is also looking to deploy IP-based control systems for its numerous video recorders and CCTV cameras, which are expected to total nearly 1,000 by 2012."

Adrian Groves, telent's General Manager Metro, commenting on the company's solution said, "In order to provide a truly effective solution, we listened very carefully to Serco Docklands and took on-board all their needs.  Our engineers then worked with ASL to set about designing a solution which not only met those needs but also achieved them in the most efficient way.  We are delighted that our solution not only addresses Serco Dockland's two key issues, namely to deliver an improved PA system and a network that can cope with the pace of change facing the DLR, but also does so with one overall IP based solution which is designed with expansion in mind."

Michael Evans concludes, "Networks underpin everything from an IT perspective so it was important we chose a family of infrastructure switch products which offered flexibility; and a well respected and trusted systems integration partner in telent to deploy them along with the ASL iPAM PA system.  Operationally we now have the latest network technology to support the DLR's well publicised growth, which puts us ahead of many other transport providers in this country."

Commenting on the contract, Adrian Groves says, "Our expertise gained from working with other rail operators like Tube Lines and Metronet was key to us winning the Serco Docklands contract and we're already working closely with Serco DLR staff to make the project a huge success."

Convergent billing specialist, Cerillion Technologies, has unveiled its Total Convergence Architecture (TCA), a new flexible model for telecoms operators based on a industry standard framework - the TM Forum's Telecom Application Map (TAM). Cerillion's TCA is designed to help operators move to the next generation of customer management by addressing the challenges of prepaid-postpaid convergence that until now have remained an unobtainable goal for most telecoms providers.

Dominic Smith, marketing director, Cerillion Technologies, said: "Driven by the necessity to develop and sustain their customer base, grow average revenue per user (ARPU) and lower capex and opex, operators have reached the critical point where they must embrace the convergence of their prepaid and postpaid platforms."

"Until now, this migration has been held back by the lack of a coherent infrastructure or methodology," he adds. "The development and launch of TCA helps remove these barriers, giving operators the platform they need to put true convergence into practice."

Cerillion's TCA has the flexibility to allow operators to pick and mix components from both billing vendors and network suppliers, utilising standards-based interfaces such as Diameter to fulfil the integration. It also supports phased deployment and upgrades, with real benefits being delivered at each stage on the path to total convergence.

With TCA, Cerillion is helping operators to achieve business improvement at all layers of the Telecom Application Map, covering sales and marketing, product management, customer management, service management and resource management. 

"Previous convergence models have been largely geared to a one-size-fits-all approach," says Louis Hall, chief executive officer, Cerillion Technologies. "We believe that our approach is completely different."

"Our flexible TCA framework reflects the fact that each operator faces a different set of challenges specific to their own market," he adds. "With this in mind, we have focused on enabling operators to deploy convergence in a way which suits their individual business rather than one dictated by the vendor."   

Adax has announced demonstrations of its integrated signaling gateway solution at the Adax booth during the Mobile World Congress. The demonstration showcases how mobile operators can benefit from the integration of existing SS7 Intelligent Nodes and databases with IP-based Media Gateways, Signaling Gateways and Softswitches.

The Adax Signaling Gateway (AdaxGW) utilises the carrier-grade, NEBS3 / ETSI compliant, IBM BladeCenter HT resulting in a powerful, high-density single slot solution for SS7, SIGTRAN or SS7/IP signaling. This helps telecommunications carriers to bridge the worlds of legacy PSTN and new, IP-based, Next-Generation Networks (NGN). With the ability to run a signaling stack or gateway on one card, the signaling blade enables an extremely cost-effective, carrier-grade solution that allows carriers to leverage the economics of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf technologies to greatly reduce their total-cost of ownership.

"We are delighted to be demonstrating for the first time this solution at this year's Mobile World Congress, offering a fully integrated signaling gateway solution with unparalleled scalability and flexibility to protect investments in both SS7  and IP networks," explains Robin Kent, director of operations at Adax Europe.  "Adax has worked closely with IBM to create use cases that demonstrate how re-configurable and re-deployable our solution is to mobile operators who visit the booth." 

The Adax solution has undergone benchmark testing which demonstrated a 140 per cent performance improvement of the signaling Gateway on the IBM Blade over its standalone 1U box.

Volubill, a supplier of real-time charging, and control applications for mobile data and content services, today announced that its customer, WiMAX Telecom has launched its high-speed broadband Internet service using WiMax 802.16e technology in Croatia utilizing Volubill's Charge-IT Dynamic Charging Platform.

Founded in 2004, WiMAX Telecom is a leading pan European Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) service provider with operations in Austria, Croatia, Germany, Slovakia and Switzerland. With about 14,000 subscribers to their fixed WiMax services in Austria and Slovakia, where Volubill's solution is already in active use, the launch of the Croatian mobile Wimax service heralds the beginning of a new mobile WiMax operation.

The Charge-IT Dynamic Charging Platform (DCP) offers high performance, real-time, bi-directional management of service requests between the network, service and application layers. The pre and post-paid services being managed by the product are wireless broadband access and VoIP.

The cost-effective and comprehensive solution allows operators, like WiMAX Telecom, to prepare for the next wave of challenges:

 -         Sharply scaling up subscribers and traffic without losing control over QoS/QoE or over operating expenditure.

-         Adapting the service offer to mobility and a new breed of handheld and pocket devices.

-         Moving up the value chain by introducing rich multimedia services with high stickiness.

Peter Ziegelwanger, Chief Technology Officer, WiMAX Telecom said, "The choice of Volubill's Charge IT product has been key to our strategy going forward, providing us with an ‘on the network' charging and control solution which can be used to achieve our goals of bringing lower pricing to both home and business customers whilst bringing broadband access to places where, until now, it has been economically unavailable."

John Aalbers, Chief Executive Officer, Volubill said, "WiMax is in area within which Volubill are experiencing increasing interest. This relatively new technology requires a charging solution that will enable operators to implement sophisticated value-based charging strategies allowing them to differentiate their services through innovative packages, bundles and promotions. We are very proud that WiMAX Telecom is using our technology to push the boundaries within telecommunications, particularly now their services span three countries."

Carrier IQ, a specialist in Mobile Service Intelligence solutions for wireless carriers and equipment vendors, today confirmed it would be working in partnership with Huawei to launch a new range of datacards that will provide improved feedback on the mobile broadband user experience.

The cards incorporate a unique diagnostic engine to enable carriers to optimize and improve data performance using Carrier IQ's suite of analysis tools.

Announcing the partnership, Carrier IQ CEO, Mark Quinlivan, said: "These new cards will make for smoother delivery of mobile data services, improvements in customer care services, identification of network coverage gaps and increased awareness of actual user behavior."

"Everybody wins," he added, "the manufacturer of the card, the network operator, but most importantly of all, the actual subscriber to mobile data services."

With Carrier IQ's Mobile Service Intelligence software embedded on the mobile broadband datacard or dongle, customer care operators can accurately diagnose problems a subscriber is experiencing.  Data fed back from the cards can also be used to improve network performance and to track any user experience issues.

"Carrier IQ is a good partner of Huawei," said Mr. Su Jie, Director of Huawei Mobile Broadband product line, "Mobile operators are always looking for ways to optimize the customer's user experience. The Carrier IQ Mobile Service Intelligence solution delivers true performance data, enabling mobile operators to optimize their end-to-end service delivery. Huawei believes users can benefit a lot via our USB Modem products."

In January 2009, research firm In-Stat reported that over 200M modem devices were shipped in 2008 with the market predicted to grow to $2.6Bn next year.

The solution is currently undergoing trials with a number of major European operators and first commercially available cards in the new range are expected to be available mid 2009.

Quinlivan added: "Mobile broadband uptake is exploding - the operators best able to match capacity to demand and improve the user experience will be those that reap the largest benefit in data traffic growth."


This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Using our website, you agree to our use of cookies

Learn more

I understand

About cookies

This website uses cookies. By using this website and agreeing to this policy, you consent to SJP Business Media's use of cookies in accordance with the terms of this policy.

Cookies are files sent by web servers to web browsers, and stored by the web browsers.

The information is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. This enables a web server to identify and track web browsers.

There are two main kinds of cookies: session cookies and persistent cookies. Session cookies are deleted from your computer when you close your browser, whereas persistent cookies remain stored on your computer until deleted, or until they reach their expiry date.

Refusing cookies

Most browsers allow you to refuse to accept cookies.

In Internet Explorer, you can refuse all cookies by clicking “Tools”, “Internet Options”, “Privacy”, and selecting “Block all cookies” using the sliding selector.

In Firefox, you can adjust your cookies settings by clicking “Tools”, “Options” and “Privacy”.

Blocking cookies will have a negative impact upon the usability of some websites.


This document was created using a Contractology template available at