Latest News

Juniper Research has forecast that 41.5bn mobile financial service transactions will be made by the end of 2011.  According to Juniper, the key drivers for these transactions will be the high speed of adoption by consumers of new mobile finance facilities - particularly those currently without access to any form of banking.  Bespoke payment applications for remittance purposes will also be popular but issues around legislation must still be overcome.

The new study reports that the desire from all sections of the MFS (Mobile Financial Services) ecosystem to deliver intelligent applications and services has created an atmosphere that is both creative and pragmatic. It also found that there is a strong desire from the MFS sector for cooperation in order to create non silo services that work together.

The Great Unbanked

The new research identified two exciting sectors:
-    The millions of mobile phone users in developing countries who do not currently hold bank accounts or credit cards and would like access to accessible banking services at the right price.
-    The millions of mobile phone users in developed countries who cannot currently access financial services due to age i.e. 13-18 year olds.

Legislation issues
The report forecasts that in-between 2007 and 2011, we will see an additional 517m global mobile phone users of MFS, although the report does warn that a number of issues still need to be overcome.  One issue particularly for new entrants is that of legislation.

Most developed world economies have strict rules and regulation governing the financial industry, to protect both the consumer and the retailer.  It can be a costly exercise, in both time and money, to design and implement an alternative MFS payment scheme that adheres to such regulation, particularly the case with mobile fund transfers and remittances potentially offering an easy route to money laundering around the world.

Other key report findings are said to  include:

  • 612m mobile phone users generating over $587bn worth of financial transactions by 2011
  • Annual global mobile banking transactions will rise from 2.7bn in 2007 to 37bn by 2011
  • The Far East & China region forecast to embrace mobile finance the most, with over 250m total mobile phone users to use MFS by 2011

Juniper Research illustrates the current and near-future status of the mobile financial services market with market forecasts, interviews, case studies and analysis from representatives of some of the leading organisations in the burgeoning mobile financial services industry.

The latest software release from Shenick for diversifEye per flow converged IP network test platforms packs new applications, upgrades to existing applications, more flexibility and increased functionality along with more visibility with a greater number of statistics available.

Features include:

      New Applications
      - Two Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP Client/Server)
      - RTP only Application
      - Digital Audio Broadcast quality measurements

      Upgrade to VoIP Application
      - Dual Hosted VoIP terminal ( IPv4 and IPv6)
      - Telephony conferencing Video analysis
      - Voice and Video analysis on incoming calls
      - Multiple Handset support over NAT Boundaries

      Greater flexibility
      - Bring Hosts in or out of service
      - Increased Start time of Applications
      - HTTP Random Url Generation with substitution based on Zipfian distribution models
      - Customizable HTTP Headers
      - Customizable SMTP Headers with substitution

      More functionality
      - IGMP/MLD Client - Enhanced Leave Time Control
      - Support MPEG2-TS file in a Playback Resource List
      - SIP Signaling Performance
      - SIP Call Rate Limiting
      - SIP 503 message support

      Increased Visibility
      - SIP Statistics Updates
      - TCP Connection Timing Statistics
      - New Statistics

cVidya Networks, a global leader of telecom data integrity, revenue assurance and Dealer management systems, announced today that it has won the World Billing Awards 2008 in the Best Revenue Assurance and Management Project category at Billing & Information Management Systems (BIMS) 2008 in which deployments were evaluated based on their Effectiveness to enhance data quality and business processes that improves profits, revenues and cash flows.

cVidya was awarded this recognition for deploying  its MoneyMap®/Configuration and MoneyMap/ Rating and Billing Verification solution within the RA Center of Excellence at the British Telecom group, demonstrating a strategic and comprehensive RA program covering all business units of BT, and handling both the business aspects and the operational day-to-day challenges of Revenue Assurance.

cVidya won the award while competing against deployments that were initially shortlisted such as ECTel's implementation at AT&T, Connectiva systems at  Etisalat Egypt and Carphone Warehouse .  Winning this award reaffirms cVidya positioning as a leader and an innovator in the Revenue Assurance arena

"We are honored to receive this prestigious award that recognizes cVidya's tremendous achievements during this year" commented Alon Aginsky, CEO of cVidya Networks. "We are delighted to share this winner's award with BT.

"We believe that cVidya's deep understanding of BT's business processes and challenges along with our strong partnership allowed us a successful deployment of cVidya advanced tools while supporting BTs end-to-end RA approach."

Espial, a leading provider of TV middleware and applications, today announced it has signed a software licenseand distribution agreement with Motorola. According to the terms of theagreement, Motorola is able to resell Espial's Evo TV Service Platform tooperators worldwide.    

"This reseller agreement represents another important milestone inEspial's channel development strategy. Motorola brings a depth of experienceand leadership in providing digital video system solutions and interactiveset-top devices around the globe. They are well positioned to capitalize onthe increasing demand for IPTV and hybrid IP-Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) systems" said Jaison Dolvane, Espial's President and CEO.

"This businessrelationship expands our global channel presence and fulfillment capacity. Itfurther strengthens the foundation we are building to scale our business tointercept emerging opportunities in the Service Provider TV market."    

Espial Evo TV Service Platform meets the rigorous middleware selectioncriteria from operators worldwide including delivery of a highly customizableuser experience; platform openness for service customization and applicationextensibility; carrier grade architecture for reliability; highly flexibleservice and business management functions to ensure a smooth operational fit;and, innovative middleware architecture that lowers total cost of ownership.    

Mr. Dolvane added: "We are pleased to have built-in support for the Motorola VIP series set top boxes as reference platforms for the Evo TVService Platform. Looking forward through 2008, one of our key businesspriorities will be to educate, train and support the Motorola team on ourtechnologies all across the world. We will work with them to win new customersand are actively engaged in opportunities in North America, Latin America,Europe and Asia."    

At Broadcast Asia, Conax, a global provider of conditional access solutions for digital TV, will be showcasing its Conax CAS7 successes in the Asian market. Conax is currently a leader in providing the best solutions for CAS security, regional technical support, higher volume roll out of STBs, all resulting in lower costs for Asian broadcasters looking to secure their premium pay content. Key Asian markets for Conax include China, India, North East and South East Asia.

Conax celebrating 5 years in India!
Conax Access Systems Pvt. Ltd., India, will celebrate its 5 year anniversary on June 27th and is proud to announce that it has deployed a total of 5 million cards to the Indian market during that time!

Conax provides core products, modules and building blocks that enable TV operators to rapidly adapt to the growing demands of an ever-changing and dynamic market. Conax allows a digital TV operator to start with a basic subscription pay-TV offer. To support a wider range of services in more complex operations and business models, Conax CAS7 optional components can be added to the Conax CAS7 subscription, empowering operators to create, deliver, and optimize premium content that will engage each individual consumer.

"Conax is currently engaged in a number of exciting projects in Asia, including the launch of several new partnerships and customer platforms. Contributing to our exciting growth in the region is the increased ability to deliver product and services through strategic regional partners and the development of our product offering through the close cooperation with key customers," says Hans Kwaaital, Vice President, Asia Pacific, Conax.

Irdeto, a leading expert in content and business model protection solutions and services, is strengthening its presence in the Asia-Pacific region with the new appointment and the opening of an office in Tokyo. These initiatives further Irdeto's leading position in protecting and enabling the fast-growing Asian media and entertainment industry, as well as reinforce the company's long-term commitment to its customers in the region.

Bengt Jönsson recently joined Irdeto as the Regional Vice President of Sales. Based in Beijing, he will be responsible for overseeing the sales efforts of the APAC region in one of Irdeto's fastest growing markets, as well as managing Irdeto's existing customer relationships. 

A veteran of the broadcasting industry, Jönsson has more than 15 years' experience in the consumer electronics and digital TV sectors. Prior to joining Irdeto, he headed a Swedish start-up, LyngBox Media AB, which provided high-end hybrid IP/DVB set-top boxes. In addition, Jönsson previously worked for Thomson Broadband Access where he was responsible for its business in the APAC region, covering Singapore, Malaysia, India, Australia, Korea and China. He also worked with Nokia Home Communications, a manufacturer of digital TV systems for home entertainment. 

 "Bengt brings to Irdeto his rich experience in digital TV broadcasting and his knowledge in working with companies in the region. His deep understanding of the issues and challenges facing operators and broadcasters will enable Irdeto to further drive new business growth in this dynamic region, as well as supporting our large Asia-Pacific customer base with a dedicated executive presence",  said Doug Lowther, Senior VP of Sales and Marketing with Irdeto.

In addition, Irdeto also announced the opening of its Japan office, adding to its current offices in Australia, China, India, Korea, Singapore, and Thailand in the Asia-Pacific region.  Located in the Chiyoda-ku business district in central Tokyo, the new office is responsible for developing business strategies and identifying growth opportunities in the country's fast growing digital, IPTV, and mobile TV markets. The office will also support Irdeto's growing list of customers and partners in Japan. 

Irdeto has played a role in the digital transformation of Japan's TV and broadcast industry since 2001. Currently, Irdeto's product portfolio is fully compatible with the Japanese ARIB ISDB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting) digital standard and support Multi2 scrambling.

"Irdeto sees the Japanese market as highly innovative and a potential driver of our product roadmap towards convergence and home networking," said Graham Kill, CEO of Irdeto. "As a company, we are focused on innovation in order to give our customers a competitive advantage and enable their growth. With a direct presence in Japan, we will be better able to address the market and provide even better support to our customers and partners."

Telcordia, a specialist in the development of IP, wireline and mobile telecommunication software and services, and Gantek Technologies, a provider of information and communication technologies in Turkey and the surrounding region, have announced that the Telcordia Number Portability Clearinghouse and Telcordia Number Management System have been selected by Avea and Vodafone to facilitate number porting in Turkey. Number portability ordinance is in effect in Turkey, and the selection of Telcordia and Gantek to provide number portability will enable service providers in the region to turn a regulatory requirement into a fair and competitive environment.

In early 2007, Turkey announced plans to implement number portability for the country's service providers. Avea and Vodafone issued a request for proposal (RFP) and selected Gantek, which leverages the Telcordia Number Portability Clearinghouse and Telcordia Number Management System as the main application software. Avea and Vodafone then donated the solution to Turkey's telecommunications regulator to expedite the rollout of number portability in the region. The Gantek-Telcordia team was selected based on Gantek's in-depth experience in the telecommunications sector and Telcordia's proven number portability implementations expertise, customer base and readiness to offer a comprehensive number portability central database solution. It was also critical that the team be able to meet and adapt to Turkey's unique needs and market conditions, which included the ability to complete system implementation and testing in just 120 days, which has already been accomplished.

"We understand the local culture and unique operating environment in Turkey," said Selda Bagdat Bahadir, General Manager, Gantek. "Matching our expertise with Telcordia, which has the deepest and broadest knowledge base in communications, is a winning combination that will ensure a smooth number portability implementation within the pre-defined timeframe."

Avea and Vodafone's selection highlight the strength of the Telcordia and Gantek relationship, which was created to benefit Turkey's regulator and service providers by providing convenient, local access to Telcordia's number portability solutions.

"Service providers worldwide recognize Telcordia's ability to help them use numbering and interconnection to evolve their businesses in an increasingly competitive market," said Richard Jacowleff, President, Interconnection Solutions, Telcordia. "Having the right partner is one of the most critical factors to success. Gantek understands service providers' business, anticipates and addresses their needs and, like Telcordia, has the technical expertise necessary to execute complicated deployments quickly and correctly. With the addition of this selection in Turkey, Telcordia number portability solutions have now been selected by 12 countries, serving more than 600 million subscribers, reinforcing our position as the worldwide leader in number portability."

Jacob Fleming leading B2B strategic conference organisers are to host their latest Telecoms event on the 11th & 12th September 2008 at the Marriot Hotel in Brussels. ‘Driving QoS in Converging Telecoms' will be presented by top industry speakers sharing their experiences to ensure an in-depth focus on today's Quality of Service.

In today's competitive telecommunications environment, customer satisfaction is key to gaining market share. The industry realises that constantly improving Quality of Service (QoS) and updating technology helps to achieve it. As people increasingly rely on new services for their lifestyle and work, their expectations for high reliability and quality are bound to rise.

High-level professionals attending this event will learn from leading fixed and mobile operators to find out what they are doing to transform into a QoS focused company. Over the course of two days, pressing issues will be covered in detail with case studies, panel discussions and networking.

At this event leading service provider, BT Group will disclose how they are meeting and exceeding the quality standards through infrastructure management. Attendees will hear from Head of Technology and Platform Introduction, speaking about the various methods they have successfully implemented.

A speaker from Orange-France will delve into mobile internet and TV and the demand that QoS places on service performance evaluation. He will talk about the demand for bigger broadband capacity and the alternatives for the future network.

The event will highlight with practical examples important topics which include; managing congestion and meeting peek traffic demand, the role of mobile backhaul in network performance and cost, challenges in network optimization and service level agreements to name a few.

This will be a unique opportunity to network, benchmark strategies and even discuss concerns with leading industry experts including Telecom Italia, Zain Telecom Jordan, Orange Israel, Telenor R&D, Qatar Telecom, T-Mobile Germany and Swisscom.

If you would like any further information on this conference visit:

Conmio, a provider of software solutions for mobile content services, has today announced that it is working with Finland's 'fastest growing' mobile operator DNA to provide mobile Internet services for DNA's subscribers. Delivered jointly by Conmio and TietoEnator, the dna Tasku service is built on Conmio ManaGate, a content management and publishing solution that automates mobile publishing of media content.

dna Tasku provides for DNA subscribers a context aware mobile Internet service, which the user can easily personalize according to their liking. The service is usable by all Internet enabled mobile phones.

Available at, dna Tasku offers users rich mobile content such as music, images and news. Conmio ManaGate matches and optimizes the content to suit every mobile device. ManaGate is designed to integrate with all editorial, publishing and business systems and applications, weaving the mobile channel into existing business processes. No software tailoring is required. In addition, users are able to personalize the service according to their own needs by selecting what content they wish to view and use.

"We wanted to build a system that is both a platform and device independent as well as easy to use, and would fit seamlessly with our existing technologies. Not forgetting, for example, the capabilities to foster new business by supporting mobile advertising. Our customers have long been asking for a mobile web service, and we wanted to provide them a solution that is based on their and not the technology's needs. Therefore Conmio's ManaGate was the best solution for us," said Ms Heidi Lagerström, Product Manager, Value-added Services, DNA.

"The mobile Internet is now a reality, and the competition for users is heating up. Speed and ease of use are the key. Content must be easily deliverable to any mobile device and users must be able to access it and personalize it without difficulty to ensure a smooth, personal user experience," commented Mr Tero Hämäläinen, CEO, Conmio.

"The mobile Internet and mobile advertising are important strategic areas for TietoEnator's Digital Media business. We focus on new solutions and services in this area, and it is important for us to find the right solutions and to collaborate with innovative partners," said Mr Hannu Arvelo, Director, Digital Media, TietoEnator.

New research from Tariff Consultancy is said to reveal that mobile operators' calling plans increase in "super size" and "unlimited" bundles of texts and minutes. Operators are trying to steer away from prepaid putting the emphasis on 30-day contracts and automatic top ups driving price competition. By comparison so far data plan bundling has been more limited and present the new battleground for mobile operators looking for growth.

In a report entitled Mobile Pricing Trends and Service Innovation published by Tariff Consultancy, the market for prepaid, postpaid and so-called hybrid contracts are evaluated from mobile operators across the globe.

The report offers detailed pricing adopted by mobile operators in both emerging and developed markets for new services such as Messaging, Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM), Mobile TV, Mobile Music, Mobile Gaming and more.

Bundling and flat rate data services are gaining ground. The trend towards inclusive and unlimited offers is becoming unstoppable. The bundles of minutes and texts are becoming larger, with Italian operator Wind offering 4,000 on-net texts a month for a Euro 2 per month fee. In the UK T-Mobile's SIM-Only Solo price plans offers up to 500 texts and 1,800 voice minutes to all networks for a 35 GBP(purchased online)  per month fee.

"Mobile operators are increasingly using all inclusive flat rate deals to attract users onto a form of contract," says Margrit Sessions, Managing Director of Tariff Consultancy Ltd. "The bundling of core minutes and texts is starting to reach its limit, so providers will have to resort to other means to differentiate their service and gain new customers".

There is also evidence that mobile operators are becoming more selective in how they position their services. Operators moving towards community pricing and plans such as SingTel's RedPAC (Parent And Child) offering allows minutes to be pooled among family members.

Fixed line and mobile providers are starting to integrate their services. Starhub in Singapore offers its Cable TV gaming service over the mobile so that those users can seamlessly transfer their online gaming experience from PC to the mobile at any time.

In new markets such as CEE and Russia, 3G providers are discovering that once a flat rate tariff structure for data is adopted - even at the equivalent of USD 100 per month - there is a ready market for Mobile Broadband, among users who use VoIP and who are underserved by existing fixed networks.

Although mobile operators are increasingly promoting flat rate data services worldwide, in reality there is usually a defined data allowance which when exceeded results in a high per MB charge rate. The can mislead consumers about how much they will really be charged in practice. Given consumers uncertainty about the real cost and need of these flat rate tariff plans operators are revising their pricing strategies and are offering a cut-price daily or per hour usage rate to stimulate user adoption.

"We believe that the next stage in mobile operator evolution will be those who are able to make Mobile Broadband a convenient, available and easy-to-use service", says Margrit Sessions. "This time around mobile operators have the opportunity to provide a varied service portfolio which is geared to the user needs of individual groups, rather than provide pure price discounting".  

Irdeto, a leading expert in content and business model protection solutions and services, today inked a deal  to deliver its latest DVB conditional access system to Bangalore-based multi-system operator (MSO) Atria Convergence Technologies (ACT). The phased roll-out of the Irdeto solution will be completed over a 30-month period. The deployment of Irdeto's technology is part of the operator's aggressive plans to migrate its analog cable customers to its new digital platform.

ACT was established to bring cable TV, Internet, data and other broadband services to residential customers through cable networks, and will harness Irdeto's DVB conditional access solution to gain a stronger foothold in the country's burgeoning cable TV market. Located near the south-eastern coast of the Indian sub-continent, Bangalore is India's third largest city with an estimated population of 5.3 million.

ACT recently introduced its digital cable TV service targeting its large subscriber base. Heralding a new era in television broadcasting, the operator's new digital offering delivers over 140 premium digital channels with crystal-clear audio quality. With conditional access, its cable TV subscribers will benefit from receiving and paying only for the content they wish to see, while ACT can introduce bundled services and differentiated pricing for channel offerings based on consumer demand.

"Irdeto's scalable content and revenue protection platform was the deciding factor in our evaluation process. Its end-to-end content security offerings and variety of  business models fit well with our business needs and will set a solid foundation to meet our future digital TV development," said the Managing Director of Atria Convergence Technologies.

Irdeto's DVB Content & Revenue Protection Solution has provided more than 300 operators worldwide with robust and proven content protection; these providers have had more piracy-free years and fewer smart card swaps than any other vendor's customers. Irdeto's unique FlexiFlash functionality allows for new functionalities and even security upgrades to be downloaded over the air to smart cards already in the field, enabling operators to be prepared for unexpected situations and exciting new opportunities. Designed for convergence, Iderto's solution is modular, platform-independent and meets all industry standards such as DVB-Simulcrypt (versions 1 and 2).

"The Indian sub-continent is a key strategic component of Irdeto's growth in the Asia-Pacific region, said Graham Kill, Chief Executive Officer of Irdeto.   "Digital migration is an on-going evolution in the pay TV industry, an area where Irdeto has strong leadership. Our successful conditional access deployments with global players have made us a qualified partner to help Indian operators like Atria Convergence Technologies to realize their true growth potential."

Although India is the third largest cable television market in the world, the low penetration levels of pay TV signifies vastly untapped growth potential. A report by Price Waterhouse Coopers estimates that the Indian television industry's revenue will expand at a CAGR of 22 percent to reach US$13.11 billion by 2011, a significant jump from US$ 4.82 billion in 2006. Growth drivers of this industry include the fast-growing Indian economy and the availability of new distribution platforms such as direct-to-home and IPTV.

MERA Systems, leading developer of tandem softswitches and session border controllers for VoIP, has announced the release of MERA IP Centrex v.1.2.0. MERA IP Centrex v. 1.2.0 allows a wider range of services and features more convenient tools of system administration.

The main innovation in version 1.2.0 is a voice mail service. It allows subscribers to receive, record and store voice messages in a personal voice mail box. If a subscriber can not answer the call, the incoming message may be recorded and an email notification can be sent to the called party. The subscribers can also manage voice mail messages: listen, save, and delete them via WEB interface or IVR using their phones.

MERA IP Centrex v.1.2.0 includes automatic media proxy capability when at least one of the user's endpoints is behind a NAT router. This new functionality ensures end-to-end connectivity to corporate and private user terminal equipment sitting behind NAT routers. The new fields, including IP addresses of endpoint devices and disconnect codes, are now displayed in the CDRs for more convenient analysis of the terminated calls.

A number of issues fixed in the new version of MERA IP Centrex include:

-  Sending of the authorization packets to the RADIUS-server when the "Call Transfer" function is in use, which resulted in the wrong billing before

- Failure of the "Three-party conference" function for subscribers, whose call was "unparked"

Germany's Mobile 3.0 is offering high-quality broadcasts of television and radio channels to users on the move, having launched a test service based on a mobile television solution from Nokia Siemens Networks.

The service, initially available in four German cities - Hamburg, Hanover, Frankfurt and Munich - includes nine TV channels (ARD, ZDF, Deutschland 24, RTL, VOX, SAT 1, Pro 7, N-TV and N24) and three radio stations (bigMUSIC, MyFun Radio, and 90elf). It will help gather information on actual demand, expected consumption patterns, coverage and reception conditions in order to fine-tune the broadcasts and identify commercial services to be launched in the future, once Mobile 3.0 receives all the remaining licenses.

During the test, Nokia Siemens Networks is fully hosting, operating and integrating its mobile TV solution, which is based on the Digital Video Broadcasting for Handheld (DVB-H) standard. The platform processes the content and provides the data stream to the broadcast network operator, while Nokia is supplying end-user terminals.

"Mobile TV in DVB-H standard is becoming reality in Germany," said Dr. Rudi Gröger, President of Mobile 3.0. "With the Nokia Siemens Networks complete solution and their services we have been able to launch this service in a very short time."

To achieve optimum results, Nokia Siemens Networks has been working closely with Mobile 3.0 to meet various challenges - in connectivity, efficiency, quality assurance and revenue generation. The DVB-H solution includes a broad range of services like system design, installation and integration. Nokia Siemens Networks also will host the system in its European hosting center and will be responsible for operation and maintenance.

"With our end-to-end capabilities for DVB-H solutions and our service capabilities to provide a fully managed and hosted system, we will support Mobile 3.0 to drive DVB-H in Germany," said Hartmut Müller-Leitloff, head of Nokia Siemens Networks business operations in Central Europe.

Ericsson company, Redback Networks, has today announced the launch of the SM 480, a smart Ethernet switch that will help operators unify their fixed and mobile networks. The product is the first in a suite of carrier Ethernet products from Redback and Ericsson said to be designed to simplify network architectures, lower carrier costs and accelerate the convergence of fixed and mobile networks.

Smart Ethernet switches provide greater flexibility for operators to consolidate their networks and introduce new services. The SM 480 is a key platform, providing a cost-efficient evolution to an IP-based transport solution and offers future terabit switching capacity. It will be integrated into Ericsson's fixed and mobile broadband solutions including LTE. Key features of the SM 480 include: Layer 2 subscriber management for wholesale broadband services; improved quality of service and reliability for video services; and a simplified IP-over-Ethernet architecture that boosts network availability and reduces downtime.

Bert Nordberg, Executive Vice President Ericsson Group, says: "The SM 480 was developed as a low-cost infrastructure alternative for consolidating fixed and mobile networks. It reflects Ericsson's vision of a single platform for fixed and mobile networks, helping operators to deliver seamless full-service broadband and offering consumers a richer user experience."

Steve Murray, Vice President for Product Management at Redback Networks, says: "Operators are eager for a solution that combines Redback's IP-over-Ethernet innovation with Ericsson's mobile expertise. The launch of the SM 480 highlights the strength of our combined technology leadership in addressing the surging global wholesale broadband market."


This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Using our website, you agree to our use of cookies

Learn more

I understand

About cookies

This website uses cookies. By using this website and agreeing to this policy, you consent to SJP Business Media's use of cookies in accordance with the terms of this policy.

Cookies are files sent by web servers to web browsers, and stored by the web browsers.

The information is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. This enables a web server to identify and track web browsers.

There are two main kinds of cookies: session cookies and persistent cookies. Session cookies are deleted from your computer when you close your browser, whereas persistent cookies remain stored on your computer until deleted, or until they reach their expiry date.

Refusing cookies

Most browsers allow you to refuse to accept cookies.

In Internet Explorer, you can refuse all cookies by clicking “Tools”, “Internet Options”, “Privacy”, and selecting “Block all cookies” using the sliding selector.

In Firefox, you can adjust your cookies settings by clicking “Tools”, “Options” and “Privacy”.

Blocking cookies will have a negative impact upon the usability of some websites.


This document was created using a Contractology template available at